How was Integrated Service
Franklin's pullout programs
reshaped and coordinated the daily schedule, the school curriculum, professional
development, faculty hiring and staffing, and the school budget.
Removing pullouts led to a fundamental restructuring
of Franklin's instructional program.
The central mechanism of ISD was to reduce class size by adding special and dually certified teachers to classrooms. The design of ISD represented a mutually beneficial compromise to achieve equity in student learning while reducing class size.
Principal Hoffman took the lead in identifying the key issues
of providing ISD. She
soon realized, however, that building ISD
required a collaborative effort with the district and
the community. Even with a collaborative approach, ISD faced
resistance from all quarters.