Presenting Leadership for Social Justice
Integrated Service Delivery
About this multimedia case

What is ISD?

Franklin School

Why was ISD made?

How was ISD built?

What happened as a result of ISD?

How would it work in my school?

Home > How would it work in my school?

How would it work in my school?

Our discussion of ISD is an example of exemplary leadership practice. When faced with such examples, school leaders often wonder whether these praiseworthy programs would work in their own schools. Here we attempt to address some of these issues of local context that could prevent or enable the design of ISD in your context.

Teachers of my school oppose

[article] Misperceptions About Inclusive Schools
Staff resistance in this case
[book] Leading in a Culture of Change, Michael Fullan
[book] Shaping School Culture, Terrence Deal and Kent Peterson

Misperceptions about Inclusive Schools, produced by the National Institute for Urban School Improvement, tells about ten misperceptions that school staff might have and bring up as reasons for opposing inclusive education. The responses to the ten misperceptions would be helpful for administrators who need to persuade school community in order to implement an ISD-like system.

Resisting a shift to ISD may have more to do with the prevailing school culture of change than on the specific issues of service delivery. Deb Hoffman dealt with resistance by capitalizing on staff expertise and directly addressing criticism. In her discussions with staff, she attempted to help staff realize the costs to student learning of traditional service delivery, and emphasized the importance of student learning. Fullan and Deal & Peterson offer rich examples of how to shift school culture.

Parents in my school oppose changing service delivery

Parent resistance in this case
Family involvement in education

Even poorly designed processes have their fans. Parents who had ESL students in Franklin School were afraid that the school would draw on the resources and teachers who had been dedicated to their kids and used for their children. School leaders who propose to change valued services need to communicate the rationale for the changes clearly in multiple ways. Leaders need to invite community members to participate in the design process and to identify parent leaders to let other parents know what is going on in the school.

Parents of nondisabled or non-ESL students may wonder if their children's learning will suffer because of inclusion. The first article by Debbie Staub explains why an inclusive education can positively effect all students.

We don't have the human resources for ISD

Building Capacity for Educational Reform
UNI professional development

Developing staff capacity for change requires a thoughtful approach to professional development. The first two links describe characteristics of effective teacher learning programs. The next two links provide a number of professional development handbooks or manuals by various topics. For example, if your school needs to deal with students with severe disabilities enrolled in general education classes, click Instruction for Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings section, and if you need some staff development for paraprofessionals, visit The Paraprofessional's Guide to the Inclusive Classroom.

We lack the financial resources for ISD

Title 1 waiver in this case
Creating School Finance Policies That Facilitate New Goals

ISD required Deb Hoffman to provide significant resources beyond her school budget. The Title I waiver was an innovative way for the Franklin school to secure financial resources. Comprehensive School Reform program provided another significant resource. Those sections shows how the school leader, Deb Hoffman worked through the process. After these two grants terminated, SAGE became the next source of financial assistance for the Franklin school.

Without additional funds, schools must make hard decisions about reallocating resources to improve learning for all students. Reallocating resources means considering how your school currently spends and considering how it might spend. The final link discusses strategies to raise and resolve these issues.

I am in a middle school

[article] The case of Kepner Middle School in Denver, Colorado
[article] Restructuring for Inclusion: Changing Teaching Practices
[book] Inclusive Middle Schools. Craig H. Kennedy and Douglas Fisher. Paul H. Brookes
Meeting the Needs of Students of ALL Abilities : How Leaders Go Beyond Inclusion

Kepner Middle School is a case study of a how a middle school restructured to provide inclusive education. This case provides a window of how an urban failing middle school made efforts in order to change the school system and what challenges they faced. Restructuring for Inclusion: Changing Teaching Practices is tells of how middle school teachers' change their practices for inclusive education. Inclusive Middle Schools is a comprehensive information for middle schools which want to seek to change to inclusive learning environments; see especially part II - Inclusive Middle School Curriculum which contains many practical tips for teachers.

I am in a high school

[video]High School Inclusion Equity and Excellence in an Inclusive Community of Learners
[book] Inclusive high schools: learning from contemporary classrooms. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
[website] The web spot for exploring Inclusive education

High School Inclusion Equity and Excellence in an Inclusive Community of Learners is a video that might effectively be used for the starting point of discussion for high school staff development. The video is made to give viewers an inside perspective on how to make inclusive education work. Inclusive High Schools provides a overview of the issues involved in building ISD-like programs in high schools. The web spot for exploring Inclusive education contains a comprehensive list of resources for educators, administrators, and parents who are working to provide an inclusive education.


Practical Wisdom