Presenting Leadership for Social Justice
Integrated Service Delivery
About this multimedia case

What is ISD?

Franklin School

Why was ISD made?

How was ISD built?

What happened as a result of ISD?

How would it work in my school?

Home > How was it built? > What were the human resources at Franklin?

What were the human resources at Franklin?

ISD required Principal Hoffman to reallocate her staff in order to maximize time in classrooms with students. She used her Comprehensive School Reform grant to provide training for her staff. She hired dually certified new teachers, hired a new Bilingual Resource Specialist, and encouraged action research by her teachers to explore dimensions of ISD.

Text of the Audio Clip

Dual Certification
Reducing class size through ISD depended on staff trained in special education and ESL. The CSR grant provided courses for teachers to learn strategies for engaging Limited English Proficient learners. Franklin went from three outside-the-classroom ESL teacher to nine ESL certified classroom teachers. Principal Hoffman also concentrated on hiring new staff with experience in general and special education. New teachers are hired with the understanding that they must eventually complete ESL certification.

Bilingual Resource Specialist
The early success of ISD depended on Bilingual Resource Specialist Nahbee Her to communicate the intent of ISD to the Hmong community. Hmong families made up the largest percentage of the Franklin's LEP students - support of their parents was essential for the success of ISD. Some Hmong families felt threatened by the withdrawal of pullout services. With Her's help, Deb helped persuade Hmong families that ISD would work for them.

Action research by teachers
Franklin teachers independently investigated ISD practices. One teacher developed a Spencer Foundation Grant to research English language learning in her classroom; another received a Rennebohm Scholars Grant through the school district to empower families of color in the educational process at Franklin School. Together, these action research projects helped reinforce the place and the value of ISD at Franklin.


Principal Hoffman conducted parents meetings to find out parent concerns and attitudes about service delivery. During ISD implementation, Franklin hosted a variety of parent meetings on topics from classroom curriculum to how to help children at home to understanding the new standards-based report card. These meetings, often targeted at the parents of students who traditionally struggle, provided a place for parents to give opinion and get information in the interest of their children education.

Partly cited from Capper, C. (forthcoming). "Social justice through resource reallocation and academic assessment." In Capper, C. and Young, M. (Eds.) Educational Leaders for Social Justice. Teachers College Press.

What information did Franklin leaders use?