Presenting Leadership for Social Justice
Integrated Service Delivery
About this multimedia case

What is ISD?

Franklin School

Why was ISD made?

How was ISD built?

What happened as a result of ISD?

How would it work in my school?

Home > How was it built? > What were the obstacles? > Staff resistance

Staff resistance

Restructuring ESL

The new Integrated Service Delivery had significant implications for the English as Second Language (ESL) program. A few ESL teachers organized a letter-writing campaign to complain to the Department of Public Instruction. Teachers spread rumors that other schools, and other ESL programs, would follow Franklin's precedent. As it turned out, these suspicions were well founded. In subsequent years, district leaders began to advocate ISD-like programs in other schools.

Art, Physical Education and Music teachers

In many elementary schools, students leave their classrooms for "specials" classes in art, physical education and music. One implication of ISD was with more classroom units in the building, specials teachers had to double up, resulting in bigger class sizes.

The specials staff felt left out of the ISD process. They wondered whether their programs were in place only to provide collaborative preparation time for classroom teachers, and commented that the school-wide ISD reform did not include their disciplines. Specials teachers organized meetings with district administrators to discuss workload issues. After a time, specials teachers acknowledged the value of ISD and continued to support their school.


Partly cited from Capper, C. (forthcoming). "Social justice through resource reallocation and academic assessment." In Capper, C. and Young, M. (Eds.) Educational Leaders for Social Justice. Teachers College Press.

Teacher union resistance